What is polymorphic microsatellite loci?
Abstract. Microsatellite loci are regions of DNA containing tandem repeats of a short sequence motif; they occur abundantly in all eukaryotic genomes and have been shown to be a rich source of highly polymorphic genetic markers in humans and other mammals.
Why are microsatellite loci useful?
Microsatellites are useful markers at a wide range of scales of analysis. Until recently, they were the most important tool in mapping genomes — such as the widely publicized mapping of the human genome. They serve a role in biomedical diagnosis as markers for certain disease conditions.
What are microsatellites and what are they used for?
Microsatellites are widely used for DNA profiling, also known as “genetic fingerprinting”, of crime stains (in forensics) and of tissues (in transplant patients). They are also widely used in kinship analysis (most commonly in paternity testing).
What is a microsatellite DNA sequence?
Microsatellite Microsatellite, as related to genomics, refers to a short segment of DNA, usually one to six or more base pairs in length, that is repeated multiple times in succession at a particular genomic location. These DNA sequences are typically non-coding.
What are polymorphic microsatellite markers?
Microsatellite markers have been found to be useful for molecular typing since length polymorphisms are often detected between isolates within the same species. The molecular mechanism for producing differences in allele sizes is primarily due to polymerase slippage errors (40).
What is the difference between SSR and ISSR markers?
SSR markers showed a mean PIC value of 0.78 hence the best marker. As RAPD and ISSR markers are biallelic in nature, they can have maximum of 0.50 PIC value. But SSR markers are multi-allelic and their PIC values will be ranging from 0 if it is monomorphic to 1 if it is highly discriminative.
What are microsatellites and how do they differ from SNPs?
Microsatellite polymorphisms can arise through replication slippage, unequal crossing over, or mutations extending or interrupting a series of repeats, whereas SNPs arise via point mutations. As a result, new microsatellite variations arise more frequently than new SNP variations.
What are Issr markers?
Inter Simple Sequence Repeats (ISSR) ISSR markers are highly polymorphic and are useful in studies on genetic diversity, phylogeny, gene tagging, genome mapping, and evolutionary biology (Reddy 2002). Sequences amplified by ISSR-PCR can be used for DNA fingerprinting.
What is SSR marker?
Microsatellites, otherwise called Simple sequence repeats (Ssrs) or Short Tandem Repeats (Strs), are rehashing sequences of 2-5 base sets of Dna.it is a sort of Variable Number Tandem Repeat (VNTR). Microsatellites are commonly co-prevailing.
What is the role of QDD in microsatellite development?
In microsatellite development, high throughput sequencing has replaced the classical cloning based methods and in this process the first two versions of QDD played an important role by dealing with the essential bio-informatics steps leading from raw sequences to primer design.
What are microsatellite loci and how are they isolated?
Microsatellite loci are widely distributed throughout the genome and can be isolated from semi-degraded DNA of older specimens, as all that is needed is a suitable substrate for amplification through PCR.
Where can I find additional data on microsatellites?
Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. Microsatellites are among the most informative and thus the most frequently used molecular markers in population biology.
Where are microsatellites located in DNA?
Many microsatellites are located in non-coding DNA and are biologically silent. Others are located in regulatory or even coding DNA – microsatellite mutations in such cases can lead to phenotypic changes and diseases.