What are pluripotency factors?
Pluripotency represents three essential features: first the capacity of indefinite self-renewal, second the ability of giving rise to differentiated progeny of nearly all lineages of the mature organism, and last the generation of chimeric embryos upon injection into the inner cell mass (ICM) of a blastocyst .
What is the function of Oct4?
Oct-4 (octamer-binding transcription factor 4), also known as POU5F1 (POU domain, class 5, transcription factor 1), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the POU5F1 gene.
How is pluripotency determined and maintained?
Pluripotency is maintained during ES cell self-renewal through the prevention of differentiation and the promotion of proliferation.
What are the regulators of pluripotency?
The core ESC pluripotency factors: Oct4, Sox2 and Nanog In ESCs, the pluripotent state is mainly regulated by the core transcription factor trio of Oct4, Sox2 and Nanog4.
Which factor is used to maintain pluripotency of a cell?
Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) plays a role in maintaining pluripotency of stem cells.
What are the four letters most commonly used to represent the transcription factors used in cell reprogramming?
Introduction of four transcription factors, Oct3/4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc, can successfully reprogram somatic cells into embryonic stem (ES)-like cells.
How does Oct4 induce pluripotency?
Oct4 mainly functions through the activation of pluripotency-associated and self-renewal-associated genes, while simultaneously repressing genes that promote differentiation, in coordination with other pluripotency factors and coregulators.
How do scientists determine pluripotency?
Reliable proof of pluripotency is based on various tests: Proof of marker genes: Genes like Oct4, which are silent in differentiated somatic cells, are switched on in iPS cells.
Which are some of the transcription factor found to be essential for maintenance of pluripotency and self renewal in mammalian inner cell mass?
Functional studies have identified a group of transcription factors, the pluripotency transcription factors that affect the pluripotent capacity. Within this group, the transcription factors Oct4 (Pou5f1), Nanog and Sox2 are crucial for the efficient maintenance of pluripotent cell identity.
How do you induce pluripotency?
The four classical transcription factors that have been demonstrated to induce pluripotency are Oct4, Sox2, cMyc, and Klf4. These factors are also known as Yamanaka factors, after the researcher who discovered their reprogramming effects. Multiple methods can be used to induce expression of these transcription factors.
What is a transcription factor examples?
The Hox transcription factor family, for example, is important for proper body pattern formation in organisms as diverse as fruit flies to humans. Another example is the transcription factor encoded by the sex-determining region Y (SRY) gene, which plays a major role in determining sex in humans.
What does OCT4 bind to?
OCT4 binds distal regulatory sites in mouse embryonic stems cells to shape chromatin accessibility. During somatic cell reprogramming, exogenous OCT4 is proposed to function as a pioneer transcription factor that can bind to its sequence motifs in inaccessible regions of chromatin.
How stem cells are maintaining self-renewal and pluripotency?
Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) lie at the heart of modern regenerative medicine due to their properties of unlimited self-renewal in vitro and their ability to differentiate into cell types representative of the three embryonic germ layers—mesoderm, ectoderm and endoderm.
What is the ultimate test of pluripotency?
Currently, the most stringent assay for testing the pluripotency of human pluripotent stem cells is teratoma formation, which only evaluates the differentiation potential to form the three germ layers or a small number of specific cell types, but can not indicate full pluripotency.