What are deep sea trenches are associated with?
Trenches are formed by subduction, a geophysical process in which two or more of Earth’s tectonic plates converge and the older, denser plate is pushed beneath the lighter plate and deep into the mantle, causing the seafloor and outermost crust (the lithosphere) to bend and form a steep, V-shaped depression.
Where are deep ocean trenches formed?
Trenches are found on the floor of the sea; however, their common name is deep ocean trenches because they are more often found in the deepest areas of the ocean. Trenches are formed in subduction zones where tectonic plates collide. There are many known trenches that scientists continue to study.
What types of convergent plate boundaries are associated with deep ocean trenches?
Oceanic/Oceanic Convergent Boundaries Such a convergent boundary includes a seafloor trench marking the earthquake-rattled subduction zone as well as an island arc: a line of volcanoes created by rock-melt in the mantle associated with subduction.
Why is it important to study and understand deep ocean trenches?
By studying ocean trenches, scientists can better understand the physical process of subduction and the causes of these devastating natural disasters.
What type of plate boundary is associated with deep ocean trenches quizlet?
Located along convergent plate boundaries, these are active subduction zones. Deep sea trenches are the major topographic expression of convergent plate boundaries, surrounding most of the Pacific Rim.
Which is the deepest ocean trench?
The Mariana Trench
The Mariana Trench, in the Pacific Ocean, is the deepest location on Earth.
What are ocean trenches called?
deep-sea trench, also called oceanic trench, any long, narrow, steep-sided depression in the ocean bottom in which occur the maximum oceanic depths, approximately 7,300 to more than 11,000 metres (24,000 to 36,000 feet). They typically form in locations where one tectonic plate subducts under another.
What plates form an oceanic trench?
Ocean trenches are natural tectonic plate boundaries between two crustal plates. When a continental plate converges with an oceanic plate a subduction zone forms. The heavier oceanic plate subducts beneath the lighter continental plate forming a trench.
Which type of zone is located at a deep ocean trench?
Deep-sea trenches generally lie seaward of and parallel to adjacent island arcs or mountain ranges of the continental margins. They are closely associated with and found in subduction zones—that is, locations where a lithospheric plate bearing oceanic crust slides down into the upper mantle under the force of gravity.
What do ocean trenches do?
Oceanic trenches are a feature of the Earth’s distinctive plate tectonics. They mark the locations of convergent plate boundaries, along which lithospheric plates move towards each other at rates that vary from a few millimeters to over ten centimeters per year.
Why is it important to study the ocean?
Information from ocean exploration can help us understand how we are affecting and being affected by changes in Earth’s environment, including changes in weather and climate. Insights from ocean exploration can help us better understand and respond to earthquakes, tsunamis, and other hazards.
Where are deep-ocean trenches found quizlet?
What are deep-ocean trenches? Long, narrow creases in the seafloor representing the deepest parts of the ocean floor. Most are located along the margins of the Pacific Ocean, with only two being located in the Atlantic.
Do deep-ocean trenches form at divergent plate boundaries?
No, ocean trenches do not occur at divergent plate boundaries. They are formed at convergent boundaries.
How many deep ocean trenches are there?
Of the Earth’s 20 major trenches, 17 are found in the Pacific basin, a vast area rimmed by trenches of both marginal and island arc varieties. Marginal trenches bound the west coast of Central and South America from the Gulf of California to southern Chile.
What is the depth of ocean?
The average depth of the ocean is 3,700 meters (12,100 feet). But the deepest part ever recorded is located in the western part of the Pacific Ocean, in the Mariana Trench, at a depth of around 11,000 meters (36,200 feet). Bathymetry is the scientific term for measuring the depth of water in oceans, lakes and rivers.
What is the deepest ocean trench?
The Mariana Trench, in the Pacific Ocean, is the deepest location on Earth. According to the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ), the United States has jurisdiction over the trench and its resources.
Where are ocean trenches located?
Notable oceanic trenches
|Kuril–Kamchatka Trench *
|Near Kuril islands
|West of Luzon, Philippines
|Mariana Trench *
|Western Pacific Ocean; east of Mariana Islands
|Middle America Trench
|Eastern Pacific Ocean; off coast of Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica
What is the deep ocean called?
The deepest part of the ocean is called the Challenger Deep and is located beneath the western Pacific Ocean in the southern end of the Mariana Trench, which runs several hundred kilometers southwest of the U.S. territorial island of Guam. Challenger Deep is approximately 10,935 meters (35,876 feet) deep.
What is a trench zone?
In a few places on the ocean floor there exist unusually deep zones. Nearly three times deeper than the average depth of the sea floor, these zones are known as deep sea trenches. The trench zones are characterized by complete darkness and unimaginable pressures of up to 16,000 pounds per square inch.
How can I study in the deep sea?
Underwater observatories offer perhaps the most permanent way of studying the deep sea. For instance, MBARI has one called MARS, the Monterey Accelerated Research System, which sits on the seafloor 3,200 feet (980 m) deep. Instruments can be plugged into ports in the observatory to monitor seismic faults, for example.
What is a deep ocean trench?
He has a Master’s degree in Environmental Science. Deep ocean trenches, which are formed when a tectonic plate slides under another tectonic plate, are essentially valleys in the ocean.
Why are trenches in the Ocean Bottomless?
The volcanic material in lower levels of the trenches can feed certain organisms as well. While crust is being pulled down below the trenches, it causes a deeper hole to form on the outer surface, causing the trenches to be bottomless. We can measure the depth of the ocean using a process called bathymetry.
How are ocean trenches formed at subduction zones?
In subduction, one tectonic plate (a large portion of the earth’s crust) slides under another. The plate that is slipping under the other plate bends and forms an ocean trench. The subduction zones where ocean trenches form become long, deep valleys.
What live in ocean trenches?
Despite vents that spew out hot gases, tremendous pressures, and lack of sunlight, there are some things that live in ocean trenches, such as microbes; xenophyophores, creatures that look like something that would grow on a coral reef; amphipods, which are little underwater scavengers; and small sea cucumbers.