What is Masticator space?
The masticator space contains the mastication muscles, ramus of the mandible, and mandibular nerve. Because clinical assessment of lesions in this space may be difficult, CT and MR imaging is important for the characterisation and mapping of the pathology.
What is Masticator space infection?
Masticator space abscess represents an advanced stage of a commonly odontogenic infection indicated by buccal pain, swelling and trismus3). Jaw swelling and trismus after a dental procedure are the typical clinical manifestations of a masticator space abscess in adults4,5).
Where is the Masticator located?
The masticator space is situated laterally to the medial pterygoid fascia and medially to the masseter muscle. It is bounded by the sphenoid bone, the posterior aspect of the mandible, and the zygomatic arch. It lies inferiorly to the temporal space and is anterolateral to the parapharyngeal space.
What is medial pterygoid muscle?
The medial pterygoid muscle, a major elevator of the jaw is a square-shaped masticatory muscle, located on the medial aspect of the lower jaw bilaterally. It is also known as internal pterygoid muscle. This muscle lies medial to the lateral pterygoid muscle.
What is buccal space infection?
Buccal space infections – These arise primarily from mandibular or maxillary bicuspid or molar teeth, the apices of which lie outside of the buccinator muscle attachments. They are readily diagnosed because of marked cheek swelling but with minimal trismus or systemic symptoms (see Figure 4).
What causes parapharyngeal abscess?
Parapharyngeal abscesses are incorporated into a group of infections known as deep neck infections. 1, 2 These infections generally occur due to nontraumatic reasons in young children, such as a prior throat infection or an infection of dental origin that has seeded into the deeper tissue structures and lymph nodes.
Where is the Submasseteric space?
The submasseteric space, also known as the masseteric space, is the inferolateral subcompartment of the masticator space located between the mandible and masseter muscle.
What action does the medial pterygoid muscle do?
The medial pterygoid muscle attaches to the angle of the mandible and to the lateral pterygoid plate to form a sling with the masseter muscle that suspends the mandible (Figure 6-19). The primary action is to elevate the mandible and laterally deviate it to the opposite side.
What is parapharyngeal space lesion?
A lesion arising in the parapharyngeal space will displace the carotid space posteriorly and/or is completely surrounded by parapharyngeal space fat. Lesions include: salivary gland tumors (most common 3), most commonly pleomorphic adenoma arising from deep lobe of parotid.
How does the parapharyngeal space interact with critical structures?
The parapharyngeal space interacts with no critical structures as it abuts the skull base. Inferiorly it empties into the posterior submandibular space along the posterior margin of the mylohyoid muscle.
What is the pathophysiology of parapharyngeal mass?
When a parapharyngeal mass is sufficiently large, it displaces the lateral pharyngeal wall and pharyngeal tonsil toward the midline and may cause lateral displacement of the parotid gland. Only when a lesion is very large does it manifest as a fullness near the angle of the mandible. Thus, clinical evaluation of the space is quite limited.
Where does the parapharyngeal space cyst originate?
Congenital or Developmental Lesions Branchial Cleft Cyst The parapharyngeal space is a rare loca- tion for a branchial cleft cyst. The pharyn- geal attachment and lack of deformity of the derivatives of the ﬁrst branchial apparatus support the view that parapharyngeal space cysts originate in the second branchial appa- ratus.
Which anatomical spaces are involved in a Masticator space infection?
What is the anatomy of the masticator space relevant to deep neck infections?
- The masticator space is situated laterally to the medial pterygoid fascia and medially to the masseter muscle.
- Infection in the masticator space may spread to the parapharyngeal, parotid, or temporal space.
What causes buccal space infection?
Buccal space infections – These arise primarily from mandibular or maxillary bicuspid or molar teeth, the apices of which lie outside of the buccinator muscle attachments. They are readily diagnosed because of marked cheek swelling but with minimal trismus or systemic symptoms (see Figure 4). Figure 5).
Which space infection causes trismus?
Trismus is a classical symptom of masticatory space infections and it can be a sign of an infection in the anterior compartment of lateral pharyngeal space. Common causes in clinical practice followed by trismus are odontogenic infection which can be periodontal or pericoronal.
What is parotid space?
The parotid space is a roughly pyramidal space, the broad elongated base facing laterally, formed by cervical fascia overlying the superficial lobe of the parotid gland, and its apex pointing medially.It is traversed by the external carotid artery, retro-mandibular vein and facial nerve.
What is Pterygomandibular space?
The pterygomandibular space (PM) is a space largely composed of connective tissue and muscle but also contains several neurovascular structures. It is triangular in shape and is bounded by the medial surface of the mandibular ramus laterally.
What is Ludwig angina?
Ludwig angina is a bilateral infection of the submandibular space that consists of two compartments in the floor of the mouth, the sublingual space and the submylohyoid (also known as submaxillary) space (figure 1). It was first described by the German physician, Wilhelm Frederick von Ludwig in 1836.
What is sublingual space?
The sublingual space is a part of the floor of mouth 1. As the sublingual space is not bounded by fascia posteriorly, some authors consider the sublingual space a component of the submandibular space 2. More commonly, however, the sublingual and submandibular spaces are discussed separately 3-5.
How do you treat buccal space infection?
Broad-spectrum parenteral antibiotic therapy, oral analgesics, and dental or oral surgical consultation for endodontic therapy, abscess drainage, and possibly dental extraction are indicated.
How do you manage a space infection?
The treatment of fascial space infections includes aggressive intravenous high dose antibiotics (usually penicillin or cephalosporins and metronidazole), analgesic and fluid therapy in addition to establishment of surgical drainage and elimination of the source of infection.
What is the most common cause of trismus?
“Trismus” is a term used to describe any number of conditions that cause an uncontrolled inability to open the mouth or jaw. The most common cause of trismus is inflammation of the soft tissue of the mouth due to: An impacted molar. Removal of wisdom teeth.
What is the difference between trismus and TMJ?
It’s sometimes called lockjaw, which brings to mind the muscle contractions associated with tetanus. However, these days, trismus refers to any muscle spasm within the temporomandibular joint that limits range of motion. It occurs when the muscles we use in chewing contract and don’t release.