What is clonal proliferation?
Definition. Clonal proliferation describes the selection and reproduction of only one type of cell.
What does B cell proliferation mean?
Definition: The expansion of a B cell population by cell division following B cell activation during an immune response.
Where does clonal expansion of B cells occur?
B Cell Differentiation and Clonal Expansion After activation, the B cell undergoes differentiation and clonal expansion, which usually involves migration to germinal centers if the activation takes place in a lymph node.
What does clone of B cells mean?
B cells that are clonally related derive from a common progenitor cell. B cell clones can be viewed as the unit of selection in an immune response (1); the successful recruitment of clones results in diversification and expansion of cells with the appropriate antigen specificity and effector function (2, 3).
What does proliferation mean in immunology?
Definition. Lymphocyte proliferation is defined as the process whereby lymphocytes begin to synthesize DNA after cross-linking of their antigen receptor either following recognition of antigen or stimulation by a polyclonal activator (mitogen).
What does clonality mean?
Clonality implies the state of a cell or a substance being derived from one source or the other. Thus there are terms like polyclonal—derived from many clones; oligoclonal—derived from a few clones; and monoclonal—derived from one clone. These terms are most commonly used in context of antibodies or immunocytes.
What are the stages of B cell development?
As they develop, B cells go through 6 stages: They start as common lymphoid progenitor cells, then become early pro-B cells, then late pro-B cells, then large pre-b cells, then small pre-B cells, and finally immature B cells.
Why does B cell proliferation and differentiation often require assistance from helper T cells?
Reason: B cells usually require the assistance of a T helper cell (TH); thus activation of a B cell by a T-dependent antigen requires cytokines secreted by a TH cell. 4) A T helper cell that recognizes this antigen fragment is activated and releases cytokines, activating the B cell.
What causes clonal expansion?
Figure 13.1E. 3: Clonal Expansion. Cytokines from an effector T4-lymphocyte now enable the activated B-lymphocyte to proliferate into a large clone of identical B-lymphocytes. During this time, “fine-tuning” of the B-cell receptor occurs through affinity maturation.
What is meant by the clonal expansion of AB cell?
What is meant by the clonal expansion of a B cell? An activated B cell divides into cells that give rise to memory B cells and plasma cells.
How is B-cell clone produced?
B cells undergo somatic recombination events and somatic hypermutation (SHM) to create a diverse repertoire of clones.
What causes cell proliferation?
Cell proliferation occurs by combining cell growth with regular “G1-S-M-G2” cell cycles to produce many diploid cell progeny. In single-celled organisms, cell proliferation is largely responsive to the availability of nutrients in the environment (or laboratory growth medium).
Is bone marrow infiltration common in CLL B cells?
It is not uncommon to find a bone marrow infiltrate of CLL B cells in patients staged for other hematologic malignancies in the absence of other diagnostic criteria for either CLL or SLL.
Is high-count MBL always associated with clonal B-cell lymphocytes?
However, based on the percent of lymphocytes that were clonal B cells, the vast majority of cases likely represented high-count MBL.
How common are clonal CLL-like cells?
Clonal CLL-like cells can be detected in up to 0.4% of prostatic tissues at the time of prostatectomy57,58and in 1.9% of liver biopsy specimens59in the absence of meeting any other diagnostic criteria for CLL and SLL.
What is the size of the B-cell clone?
No information on the size of the B-cell clone was available in this study. However, based on the percent of lymphocytes that were clonal B cells, the vast majority of cases likely represented high-count MBL.