What is a long chain of nucleotides called?
Polynucleotides are made up of long chains of nucleotides like DNA and RNA, while polysaccharides are composed of monosaccharides joined by glycosidic linkage and polypeptides are short polymers of amino acids linked together by an amide bond.
What nucleotide consists of?
A molecule consisting of a nitrogen-containing base (adenine, guanine, thymine, or cytosine in DNA; adenine, guanine, uracil, or cytosine in RNA), a phosphate group, and a sugar (deoxyribose in DNA; ribose in RNA).
What is a molecular chain of nucleotides called?
A DNA molecule consists of two long polynucleotide chains composed of four types of nucleotide subunits. Each of these chains is known as a DNA chain, or a DNA strand.
What are long chains of nucleic acids?
Nucleic acids are polynucleotides—that is, long chainlike molecules composed of a series of nearly identical building blocks called nucleotides. Each nucleotide consists of a nitrogen-containing aromatic base attached to a pentose (five-carbon) sugar, which is in turn attached to a phosphate group.
What nucleotides bond together?
Nucleotides are joined together by covalent bonds between the phosphate group of one nucleotide and the third carbon atom of the pentose sugar in the next nucleotide. This produces an alternating backbone of sugar – phosphate – sugar – phosphate all along the polynucleotide chain.
What is polynucleotide chain?
A polynucleotide chain is composed of monomers of nucleotide molecules. The structure of DNA is two nucleotide molecules wound together. Even RNA is made of a single chain of polynucleotides.
What are nucleotides quizlet?
A nucleotide is one of the structural components, or building blocks, of DNA and RNA. A nucleotide consists of a nitrogenous base (one of four chemicals: adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine) a molecule of sugar (deoxyribose or ribose) and a phosphate group.
What are the nucleotides in DNA?
There are four different DNA nucleotides, each defined by a specific nitrogenous base: adenine (often abbreviated “A” in science writing), thymine (abbreviated “T”), guanine (abbreviated “G”), and cytosine (abbreviated “C”) (Figure 2).
How are nucleotides joined together?
DNA and RNA are composed of nucleotides that are linked to one another in a chain by chemical bonds, called ester bonds, between the sugar base of one nucleotide and the phosphate group of the adjacent nucleotide.
What is a chain of amino acids called?
A protein consists of one or more chains of amino acids (called polypeptides) whose sequence is encoded in a gene.
What molecules are nucleic acids made of?
Nucleic acids are giant biomolecules made of monomers called nucleotides. Nucleotides have three components: pentose sugar (5-carbon sugar), phosphate group, and nitrogenous base. The nucleic acids are of two major types: natural and synthetic nucleic acids.
How many parts are there in a nucleotide?
Nucleotides contain three characteristic components: a nitrogenous base, a pentose, and one or more phosphate groups. The nitrogenous bases are derivatives of two parent heterocyclic compounds, purine and pyrimidine. The major pyrimidine bases are cytosine, thymine, and uracil.