What happens in premature babies who have not produced surfactant?
When there is not enough surfactant, the tiny alveoli collapse with each breath. As the alveoli collapse, damaged cells collect in the airways. They further affect breathing. The baby has to work harder and harder to breathe trying to reinflate the collapsed airways.
What will likely happen to a premature baby if there is a deficiency of surfactant in the lungs?
Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) A baby develops RDS when the lungs do not produce sufficient amounts of surfactant. This is a substance that keeps the tiny air sacs in the lung open. As a result, a premature baby often has difficulty expanding her lungs, taking in oxygen, and getting rid of carbon dioxide.
What happens if there is not enough surfactant in the lungs?
When there is not enough surfactant, the tiny alveoli collapse with each breath. As the alveoli collapse, damaged cells collect in the airways, which makes it even harder to breath. These cells are called hyaline membranes. Your baby works harder and harder at breathing, trying to re-inflate the collapsed airways.
Which is the most common complication for which the nurse must monitor preterm infants?
Additionally, about 86.1% of the nurses considered respiratory distress syndrome as a common complication of prematurity, and 61.1% of them stated neonatal septicemia as a common complication of prematurity (Table 2).
How does surfactant help premature babies?
Surfactant replacement therapy for premature babies acts to keep the alveoli from sticking together, and is supplemented with oxygen or ventilation to help the baby breathe. The majority of premature babies recover from RDS without major complications, while others are at risk for chronic breathing difficulties.
Why is surfactant important for a baby?
Surfactant coats the alveoli (the air sacs in the lungs where oxygen enters the body). This prevents the alveoli from sticking together when your baby exhales (breathes out).
What role does surfactant play in lung function and why does this mean babies born before 28 weeks are vulnerable to respiratory distress syndrome?
Surfactant is a foamy substance that keeps the lungs fully expanded so that newborns can breathe in air once they are born. Without it, the lungs collapse, and the newborn must work hard to breathe. This can cause the baby’s organs to be without necessary levels of oxygen.
What are 3 common complications due to prematurity and why do they occur?
Premature babies are more likely to have chronic health issues — some of which may require hospital care — than are full-term infants. Infections, asthma and feeding problems are more likely to develop or persist. Premature infants are also at increased risk of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS).
What are the common complications of preterm birth?
Preemie babies tend to have heart, brain, lung or liver issues. Some of the most common health conditions that affect premature babies are: Apnea of prematurity, or temporary pauses in breathing during sleep. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia, or underdeveloped lungs.
What is the purpose of surfactant and why is a lack of it a problem for preterm infants?
Key points. Surfactant is a substance that allows the alveoli to remain open, making gas exchange easier. Babies born without enough surfactant are said to have respiratory distress syndrome or RDS.
What role does surfactant play in preventing respiratory distress syndrome in premature infants?
First, surfactant decreases the pressure of the atmosphere on alveoli. During inhalation, the alveoli expand, and during exhalation, they collapse inwards. Without surfactant, the inner tissue of the alveoli sticks together during exhalation, causing the alveoli to collapse and preventing gas exchange.
How do premature babies get surfactant?
The surfactant is administered via a thin catheter into the trachea in small aliquots, while the baby is spontaneously breathing on CPAP support. In infants 29-32 weeks gestation, LISA may reduce the occurrence of pneumothorax and need for mechanical ventilation.