## What are Modigliani and Miller approach theory?

The Modigliani-Miller theorem (M&M) states that the market value of a company is correctly calculated as the present value of its future earnings and its underlying assets, and is independent of its capital structure.

## What are the assumptions of Modigliani-Miller theory?

The first assumption of the theory is that financial transactions occur at no cost. A firm wishing to sell stock to finance a new factory, for example, can do so without paying commissions to an intermediary, such as an investment bank, or so it is assumed. In real life, there are transaction costs.

**What are the criticism of the Modigliani and Miller theory?**

M-M theory is also criticize for the reason that it ignores the corporate taxation and personal taxation. Retained earnings: It also ignores personal aspect of financing through retained earnings. In real world , corporate will not pay out the entire earnings in the form of dividends.

### What is the main conclusion of Modigliani and Miller mm Proposition 1?

Their main conclusions can be summarized as: In the absence of taxes, firm capital structure is irrelevant. With taxes, a firm’s cost of capital can be lowered through issuing debt.

### What is MM approach formula?

ke = WACC + (WACC − kd) × D. E. The above equation means that with an increase in debt-to-equity ratio (D/E), cost of equity will increase resulting in a constant weighted-average cost of capital (WACC) at any capital structure.

**What is MM approach of capital structure?**

The M&M Theorem, or the Modigliani-Miller Theorem, is one of the most important theorems in corporate finance. The theorem was developed by economists Franco Modigliani and Merton Miller in 1958. The main idea of the M&M theory is that the capital structure of a company does not affect its overall value.

#### What is the importance of the Modigliani Miller model?

The Modigliani-Miller theorem explains the relationship between a company’s capital asset structure and dividend policy and its market value and cost of capital; the theorem demonstrates that how a manufacturing company funds its activities is less important than the profitability of those activities.

#### What are the limitations of MM theory?

Some of the problems of MM approach are due to imperfect markets, transaction costs, floatation costs and uncertainty of future capital gains and the preference for current dividends.

**What is MM hypothesis discuss in detail?**

The MM Hypothesis reveals that if more debt is included in the capital structure of a firm, the same will not increase its value as the benefits of cheaper debt capital are exactly set off by the corresponding increase in the cost of equity, although debt capital is less expensive than the equity capital.

## What is Modigliani and Miller proposition 2?

The second proposition of the M&M Theorem states that the company’s cost of equity is directly proportional to the company’s leverage level. An increase in leverage level induces a higher default probability to a company.

## What is MM hypothesis?

The Modigliani and Miller approach to capital theory, devised in the 1950s, advocates the capital structure irrelevancy theory. This suggests that the valuation of a firm is irrelevant to the capital structure of a company.

**What is Modigliani and Miller Proposition 2?**

### What are the assumptions of Modigliani and Miller’s dividend policy?

Assumptions of Miller and Modigliani Hypothesis There are no floatation or transaction costs, no investor is large enough to influence the market price, and the securities are infinitely divisible. There are no taxes. Both the dividends and the capital gains are taxed at the similar rate.

### What is MM’s Proposition 2?

Proposition 2 (M&M II): The second proposition for the real-world condition states that the cost of equity has a directly proportional relationship with the leverage level. Nonetheless, the presence of tax shields affects the relationship by making the cost of equity less sensitive to the leverage level.

**What is MM theory of dividend?**

Miller and Modigliani’s dividend irrelevance theory is sometimes known as the homemade dividend theory. It suggests that a shareholder can earn as much money as in the case of dividend by selling the shares in the market. Hence, the investors are indifferent to the dividend distribution policy of a company.

#### What is the difference between MM proposition 1 and 2?

Proposition I states that the market value of any firm is independent of the amount of debt or equity in capital structure. Proposition II states that the cost of equity is directly related and incremental to the percentage of debt in capital structure.

#### What is M & M proposition 1?

Proposition 1 (M&M I): The first proposition essentially claims that the company’s capital structure does not impact its value. Since the value of a company is calculated as the present value of future cash flows, the capital structure cannot affect it.

**What is MM’s proposition 2?**

## What is the difference between M&M proposition 1 and 2?

## What are the differences between 1st and 2nd propositions of MM approach in capital structure?

**What is Modigliani and Miller theory?**

1. MODIGLIANI AND MILLER THEORY: WITHOUT TAXES This approach is an improvement over another approaches. MM Approach is an identical to NOI Approach In 1958, Modigliani and Miller published their research stating that the value of the firm does not change with the change in the firm’s capital structure.

### What is the difference between Modigliani and Miller’s approach and Proposition 2?

A key distinction here is that Proposition 2 assumes that debt shareholders have the upper hand as far as the claim on earnings is concerned. Thus, the cost of debt reduces. The Modigliani and Miller Approach assumes that there are no taxes, but in the real world, this is far from the truth.

### What is the Modigliani and Miller approach to corporate tax policy?

This approach with corporate taxes does acknowledge tax savings and thus infers that a change in the debt-equity ratio has an effect on the WACC ( Weighted Average Cost of Capital ). This means that the higher the debt, the lower the WACC. The Modigliani and Miller approach are one of the modern approaches of Capital Structure Theory.

**Are dividends relevant under Modigliani – Miller’s model?**

The assumption of no uncertainty is unrealistic. The dividends are relevant under the certain conditions as well. Modigliani – Miller’s theory of dividend policy is an interesting and different approach to the valuation of shares. It is a popular model that believes in the irrelevance of dividends.