How are microsatellites analyzed?
Microsatellite marker analysis involves PCR amplification of the microsatellite loci using fluorescently labeled primers that flank the repeated sequence. The labeled PCR products are then analyzed by CE to separate the amplicons by size.
How do you identify microsatellite markers?
Microsatellites are highly reproducible and specific, and are easily identified from genome sequences by bioinformatics data mining [20–22]. Microsatellite polymorphisms can be detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification followed by DNA electrophoresis [8,23].
How are microsatellites used for genotyping?
Microsatellites exist in most biological genomes. They are evenly distributed in the genome, so they are widely used in genetic cross breeding and mapping markers of chromosome genetic map. Highly polymorphic microsatellite markers can be used to identify individuals in the population.
How does fragment analyzer work?
The Fragment Analyzer™ system performs parallel separations simultaneously via multiplexed capillary electrophoresis. By using a sensitive intercalating dye coupled with a powerful LED light source, sizing and quantification of both DNA fragments and RNA samples are performed.
How microsatellites are used in genetic studies?
Also, microsatellites are used for mapping locations within the genome, specifically in genetic linkage analysis to locate a gene or a mutation responsible for a given trait or disease. As a special case of mapping, they can be used for studies of gene duplication or deletion.
How are microsatellites used in DNA profiling?
Microsatellites or STRs are repetitive co-dominant sequences of 2–6 bp of DNA that are present throughout the entire genome. They are often used for identification or fingerprinting of DNA. Microsatellites are amplified by PCR using fluorescently labeled primers and the amplicons are separated using CE.
What is microsatellite DNA profiling technique?
Microsatellites are widely used for DNA profiling, also known as “genetic fingerprinting”, of crime stains (in forensics) and of tissues (in transplant patients). They are also widely used in kinship analysis (most commonly in paternity testing).
Why are microsatellites used as markers?
Mutation process: Microsatellites are useful genetic markers because they tend to be highly polymorphic. It is not uncommon to have human microsatellites with 20 or more alleles and heterozygosities (Hexp = gene diversity, D) of > 0.85.
How are microsatellites used in population genetics?
Microsatellites are also being used as genetic markers for identification of population structure, genome mapping, pedigree analysis, and to resolve taxonomic ambiguities in many other animals besides fishes [40–49].
How does a genetic analyzer work?
Genetic analyzers are automated systems capable of sequencing DNA or analyzing fragments for a variety of applications. In capillary electrophoresis-based systems, DNA fragments bound to probes migrate through a polymer and the fluorescence emissions are measured.
What is an analysis of fragments of DNA as a form of identification?
DNA fingerprinting, also called DNA typing, DNA profiling, genetic fingerprinting, genotyping, or identity testing, in genetics, method of isolating and identifying variable elements within the base-pair sequence of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid).
Why microsatellites are used in forensic analysis?
Forensic and medical fingerprinting The microsatellites in use today for forensic analysis are all tetra- or penta-nucleotide repeats, as these give a high degree of error-free data while being short enough to survive degradation in non-ideal conditions.